• I am the Alvin H. Clemens Professor of Management and Organization at the Smeal College of Business at the Pennsylvania State University.

    My research focuses on social relations at work, with a primary focus on teamwork and the drivers of team success.


    My research has been published in numerous outlets, including the Academy of Management Journal, the Journal of Applied Psychology, the Journal of Personality, Personnel Psychology, and Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes.

  • Research

    My research has focused primarily on answering two questions:


    How do you make a great team?
    – and –
    How do you make a team great?

    Making a Great Team

    My first interest focuses on the “bottom-up” formative design of teams. That is, if one wants to build a successful team from scratch, what are the issues that are most important? It is through this lens that I have addressed topics such as the “seeding” of teams (Humphrey, Hollenbeck, Meyer, & Ilgen, 2007), putting the best members into the most strategically core roles (Humphrey, Morgeson, & Mannor, 2009), configuring the reward structure in a team (Aime, Meyer, & Humphrey, 2010; Beersma, Hollenbeck, Humphrey, Moon, Conlon, & Ilgen, 2003), structuring the team to capitalize on different beliefs and opinions (Homan et al., 2008; Moon, Conlon, Humphrey, Quiqley, Devers, & Nowakowski, 2003), designing work to improve motivational and social processes (Harrison & Humphrey, 2010; Humphrey, Nahrgang, & Morgeson, 2007; Morgeson & Humphrey, 2006), and decomposing the relationship amongst team members (Hambrick, Humphrey, & Gupta, 2015)

    Making a Team Great

    My second interest deals with the “top-down” management of existing teams. That is, if we look at existing teams embedded in time, how does this temporal context affect a team’s functioning? Although it is valuable to create theories of teamwork that can be used to direct the formation of teams, or be applied to cross-sectional studies of teamwork, there is something fundamentally different in studying how change (in terms of such issues as personnel, rewards, group structure, or task requirements) in teams affects teamwork. My overarching concern in this area is how team members manage the change through their organizing processes. That is, how willing and able is a team to break its entrained routines and produce new processes and relationships? One common way that I have tackled this question is in looking at structural factors inhibiting (or enabling) the transition to new routines, such as role structure (Moon et al., 2004; Summers, Humphrey, & Ferris, 2012), reward structure (Johnson et al., 2006), or leadership structure (Hollenbeck et al., 2011). More recently, I have expanded this discussion by focusing on how power expression can shift across members as a function of new situational demands (Aime, Humphrey, DeRue, & Paul, 2013), finding that members must perceive a legitimate shift in power expression in order for teams to harness the unique capabilities of diverse, cross-functional teams. In a related theme, I have also produced an unfolding model of team conflict, demonstrating a differentiation between task conflict and relationship conflict over the lifespan of teams (Humphrey, Aime, Cushenberry, Hill, & Fairchild, 2017)

    Team Microdynamics

    Across both questions, I have an interest on the multilevel, multi-period, and multi-theoretical nature of teamwork (i.e., the microdynamics of teamwork; Humphrey & Aime, 2014). Ultimately, I want to know what the meaning of "team" really is, which means that I am curious about how individual team members are simultaneously role holders, part of numerous dyadic relationships, embedded in subgroups, operating in teams.

  • Teaching

    My primary teaching responsibilities have been focused on delivering Negotiation skills to numerous populations.

    Negotiation Theory and Skills

    B A 805

    A core class in both the MBA and EMBA programs, providing an intensive immersion into negotiation. This class focuses on the essentials of dyadic negotiation, delivered through a combination of lecture, discussion, case analysis, and hands-on negotiations.

    Complex Negotiations

    MGMT 821

    An elective MBA class, focused on multiparty negotiation. How do you navigate the complexity of a negotiation where many parties (who may not all be at the table) want different outcomes? This class is delivered through a combination of hands-on negotiations, observation, case-analysis, and discussion.

    Negotiation and Conflict Management

    MGMT 420

    An undergraduate course focused on the theory and practice of negotiation. This course focuses on understanding the behavior of individuals, groups, and organizations in the context of competitive situations.

    Executive Education & Online Education

    Negotiation Certificate

    A three-course sequence comprised of Negotiation Theory and Skills, Complex Negotiations, and Power and Influence

  • Education

    Michigan State University

    Eli Broad College of Business

    PhD, Organizational Behavior and Human Resource Management


    James Madison University

    Department of Psychology

    BS, Psychology

  • PDF of Current CV

  • Contact Me

    The Pennsylvania State University

    Department of Management and Organization

    Smeal College of Business

    University Park, PA 16802

    stephen.humphrey (at) psu.edu



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  • My Publications

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    Team members’ reactions to newcomer’s attractiveness and sex

    Min, S. W., Humphrey, S. E., Aime, F., Petrenko, O. V., Quade, M. J., & Fu, S. (2021). Dealing with new members: Team members’ reactions to newcomer’s attractiveness and sex. Journal of Applied Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1037/apl0000872

    Ethical Champions in Entrepreneurial Teams

    Chen, A., Treviño, L. K., & Humphrey, S. E. 2020. Ethical champions, emotions, framing, and team ethical decision making. Journal of Applied Psychology, 105(3): 245–273.

    The Handbook of Multilevel Theory, Measurement, and Analysis

    Humphrey, S. E. & LeBreton, J. M. (Eds.) 2019. The Handbook of Multilevel Theory, Measurement, and Analysis.Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

    A Primer on Dyadic Data Analysis

    Knight, A. P. & Humphrey, S. E. 2019. Dyadic data analysis. In S. E. Humphrey & J. M. LeBreton (Eds.), The Handbook of Multilevel Theory, Measurement, and Analysis. (pp. 426-448). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

    Meta Analysis of Leadership and Justice

    Karam, E. P., Hu, J., Davison, R. B., Juravich, M., Nahrgang, J. D., Humphrey, S. E., & DeRue, D. S. 2019. Illuminating the “face” of justice: A meta-analytic examination of leadership and organizational justice. Journal of Management Studies, 56, 134-171.

    Dyadic Conflict

    Humphrey, S. E., Aime, F., Cushenbery, L, Hill, A. D., & Fairchild, J. 2017. Team conflict dynamics: Implications of a dyadic view of conflict for team performance. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 142: 58-70.

    Structural Origins of Interdependence

    Hambrick, D. C., Humphrey, S. E., & Gupta, A. 2015. When does executive group heterogeneity matter most (and least)? Identifying the structural origins of interdependence in top management teams. Strategic Management Journal, 36: 449-461.

    Riddle of the Heterarchy

    Aime, F., Humphrey, S. E., DeRue, D. S., & Paul, J. 2014. The riddle of heterarchy: Power transitions in cross-functional teams. Academy of Management Journal, 57: 327-352.

    Team Microdynamics

    Humphrey, S. E. & Aime, F. 2014. Team microdynamics: Towards an organizing approach to teamwork. Academy of Management Annals, 8: 443-503.

    Change is disruptive to teams

    Summers, J. K., Humphrey, S. E., & Ferris, G. R. (2012). Team member change, flux in coordination, and performance: Effects of strategic core roles, information transfer, and cognitive ability. Academy of Management Journal, 55: 314-338.

    I-C and Team Member Performance

    Wagner, J. A. III, Humphrey, S. E., Meyer, C. J., & Hollenbeck, J. R. (2012). Individualism-collectivism and team member performance: Another look. Journal of Organizational Behavior.

    Better to Give or Receive in negotiations?

    Conlon, D. E., Tinsley, C. H., Humphrey, S. E., & Ellis, A. P. J. (2012). Is it sometimes better to receive than to give? Preferences for receiver roles over proposer roles in consumer behavior ultimatums. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 119, 64-77.

    Where does Personal Reputation come from?

    Zinko, R. A., Ferris, G. R., Humphrey, S. E., Meyer, C. J., & Aime, F. (2012) The nature of personal reputation in organizations: Two complementary studies aimed at construct and criterion-related validity. Journal of Organizational and Occupational Psychology, 85, 156-180.

    Personality Configurations in Teams

    Humphrey, S. E., Hollenbeck, J. R., Meyer, C. J., & Ilgen, D. R. (2011). Personality configurations in self-managed teams: A natural experiment on the effects of maximizing and minimizing variance in traits. Journal of Applied Social Psychology.

    What is a Great Meta-Analysis?

    Humphrey, S. E. (2011). What does a great meta-analysis look like?Organizational Psychology Review, 1, 99-103.

    Leadership - What is it?

    DeRue, D. S., Nahrgang, J. D., Wellman, N. & Humphrey, S. E.(2011). Trait and behavioral theories of leadership: A meta-analytic test of their relative validity. Personnel Psychology, 64, 7-52.

    Teams Change Differently

    Hollenbeck, J.R., Ellis, A.P.J., Humphrey, S.E., Garza, A., & Ilgen, D.R. (2011). Asymmetry in structural adaptation: The differential impact of centralizing versus decentralizing team decision-making structures. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 114, 64-74

    Decision makers aren't ethical when project is almost finished

    Jensen, J. M., Conlon, D. E., Humphrey, S. E., & Moon, H. (2011). The consequences of completion: How level of completion influences information concealment by decision makers. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 41, 401-428.

    How do you reward groups?

    Aime, F., Meyer, C. J., & Humphrey, S. E.(2010). Legitimacy of group rewards: Analyzing legitimacy as a condition for the effectiveness of group incentive designs. Journal of Business Research, 63, 60-66.

    How do you design for diversity in teams?

    Harrison, D. A. & Humphrey, S. E.(2010). Designing for diversity or diversity for design? Tasks, interdependence, and within-unit differences at work. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 31, 328–337.

    What is the core role of a team?

    Humphrey, S. E., Morgeson, F. P., & Mannor, M. J. (2009). Developing a Theory of the Strategic Core of Teams: A Role Composition Model of Team Performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 94, 48-61.

    Role negotiation in teams

    Beersma, B., Hollenbeck, J. R., Conlon, D. E., Humphrey, S. E., Moon, H., & Ilgen, D. R. (2009). Role negotiation in self-managed teams: The effects of history and composition on coordination and performance. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 108, 131-142.

    Diffusing the negative components of team diversity

    Homan, A. C., Hollenbeck, J. R., Humphrey, S. E., van Knippenberg, D., Ilgen, D. R., & Van Kleef, G. A. (2008). Facing differences with an open mind: Openness to experience, salience of intra-group differences, and performance of diverse work groups. Academy of Management Journal, 51, 1204-1222.

    Extroversion promotes helping

    Moon, H., Marinova, S. V., Hollenbeck, J. R. & Humphrey, S. E. (2008). Beneath the surface: Uncovering the relationship between Extraversion and Organizational Citizenship Behavior through a facet approach. International Journal of Selection and Assessment.

    How do we design work?

    Humphrey, S. E., Nahrgang, J. D., & Morgeson, F. P. (2007). Integrating motivational, social, and contextual work design features: A meta-analytic summary and theoretical extension of the work design literature. Journal of Applied Psychology

    Seeding differences in teams

    Humphrey, S. E., Hollenbeck, J. R., Meyer, C. J., & Ilgen, D. R. (2007). Personality configurations in self-managed teams: A conceptual examination of the use of seeding to maximize and minimize trait variance in teams. Journal of Applied Psychology.

    Measuring work design

    Morgeson, F. P. & Humphrey, S. E. (2006). The work design questionnaire (WDQ): Developing and validating a comprehensive measure for assessing job design and the nature of work, Journal of Applied Psychology, 91, 1321-1339.

    Brokered Ultimatum Negotiations

    Ellis, A. P. J., Humphrey, S. E., Conlon, D. E., & Tinsley, C. H. (2006). Improving customer reactions to brokered ultimatums: The benefits of prior experience and explanations, Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 36, 2293-2324.

    Changing team rewards can hurt

    Johnson, M. D., Hollenbeck, J. R., Humphrey, S. E., Ilgen, D. R., Jundt, D. K.. & Meyer, C. J. (2006). Cutthroat cooperation: Asymmetrical adaptation of team reward structures, Academy of Management Journal, 49, 103-119.

    Projects aren't safe at the beginning and end

    Humphrey, S. E., Moon, H., Conlon, D. E., & Hofmann, D. A. (2004). Decision making and behavioral fluidity: How focus on completion and emphasis on safety changes over the course of projects. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes93, 14-27.

    Changing team structure can hurt

    Moon, H., Hollenbeck, J. R., Humphrey, S. E., Ilgen, D. R., West, B. J., Ellis, A. P. J., & Porter, C. O. L. H. (2004). Asymmetric adaptability: Dynamic team structures as one-way streets. Academy of Management Journal, 47 , 681-695.

    Brokered Ultimatum Negotiations

    Humphrey, S. E., Ellis, A. J. P., Conlon, D. E., & Tinsley, C. H. (2004). Customer reactions to brokered ultimatums: Applying negotiation and justice theory. Journal of Applied Psychology89, 466-482.

    Cooperation and competition in teams: Rewards matter

    Beersma, B., Hollenbeck, J. R., Humphrey, S. E., Moon, H., Conlon, D. E., & Ilgen, D. R. (2003). Cooperation, Competition, and Team Performance: Towards a Contingency Approach. Academy of Management Journal, 46, 572-490.

    Groups are incremental decision makers

    Moon, H., Conlon, D. E., Humphrey, S. E., Quigley, N., Devers, C. E., & Nowakowski, J. M. (2003). Group structure and incrementalism in organizational decision-making. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 92, 67-79.

    Neuroticism leads to escalation of commitment

    Moon, H., Hollenbeck, J. R., Humphrey, S. E., & Maue, B. (2003). The tripartite model of neuroticism and the suppression of depression and anxiety within an escalation of commitment dilemma. Journal of Personality, 71, 347-368.

    Group climate can lead to unethical behaviors

    Humphrey, S. E., & Kahn, A. S. (2000). Fraternities, athletic teams, and rape: Importance of identification with a risky group. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 15, 1313-1322


    Designing Jobs and Teams

    Morgeson, F. P., & Humphrey, S. E. (2008). Job and team design: Toward a more integrative conceptualization of work design. In J. Martocchio (Ed.), Research in personnel and human resource management (Vol. 27, pp. 39-92). United Kingdom: Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

    A Video Game for Training Teams

    Humphrey, S. E., Hollenbeck, J. R., Ilgen, D. R., & Moon, H. (2004). The changing shape of large scale programs of research: MSU-DDD as an illustrative example. In S. G. Schiflett, L. R. Elliott, E. Salas, & M. D. Coovert (Eds.), Scaled Worlds: Development, Validation and Applications. (pp. 200-219). England : Ashgate Publishing Limited.

    Hierarchical Decision Making in Teams

    Humphrey, S. E., Hollenbeck, J. R., Meyer, C. J., & Ilgen, D. R. (2002). Hierarchical team decision making. In G. R. Ferris, & Martocchio, J. J. (Eds.),Research in Personnel and Human Resource Management (Vol. 21, pp. 175-214). Oxford: Elsevier Science Ltd